History of Vietnam

According to the data from 1965 years, the population of Vietnam was 34 million 500 thousand people. 18 million 500 thousand of these people lived in Democratic Republic of Vietnam and 16 million in South Vietnam. 29 million 950 thousand or 85% of inhabitants of Democratic Republic of Vietnam and South Vietnam made up by Viets, or in fact Vietnamese. In ethnographic literature is often used the term “kin”. It is thought that this term is derived from Chinese word “zin”, which means “capital, city”. Nowadays  the term “viet”become more and more spread.

According to scientists Vietnamese people belong to niger-astraloid and south-Mongolian and probably speak languages of Australasian and austronesian families. These tribes takes part in hoe agriculture, fishing, hunting.

Till the middle of I thousand B.C. on the territory of Vietnam from the north came viet’s tribes, among which the most numerous groups were lak-viets. They, probably, were southern Mongolians, and speak dialect of ancient Thai and another close to it languages. Lakviets made settlement of austroasians and austronesians, and particularly mixed themselves with that nations. A little bit later in Vietnam appeared ancestry of modern Thai nation. They settled in valleys and before mountain northern part of the country.

From all nations in Vietnam the most developed in culture was lakviets, which took part in creation of bronze culture (famous under the name dong-shon).

In 1858 under the slogan “to protect from local government’s harassment” Frances-Spanish army came to the bay Dananga, and 3 years later, after fights with regular armies and partisans, France occupied Southern provinces Ziadin, DinTyong, and Benhoa.

In 1867 Frances army occupied more provinces on the south-west of Vietnam: Vinlong, Anziang, and Hat’en. Making the plan of occupying the whole Vietnam, Frances government move war actions to the north of the country. Second Frances- Vietnamese war (1883-1884) ended, in spite of all nation resistance, with signing of agreement in which Vietnam had to have Frances protectorate. France named north and central parts (respectively Tonkin and Annam), as protectorates and southern part -Konhinkin – as a colony. Vietnam with, also occupied, Cambodia made so called Indochina Union (in 1898 to this Union joined Laos).

In the beginning of the XX century under effect of Russia-Japan war and revolution of 1905 to the national-freedom activity joined bourgeois national elements, who wanted freedom for the country and economical changes for capitalistic’a interest.

In years of First World War, Vietnam became the source of agriculture products, workers and soldiers for metropole. After WWI colony exploitation became stronger. In the end of the XIX century Vietnam be began to formate worker class, which in 1930 included more than 50 thousand of manufacture worker. Since 1936 till joining of the France to the WWII workers managed in improvements of living conditions and democratic laws. In 1945 in Vietnam began political changes in which Vietnam got its “independence”. On 2nd September of 1945 was settled new country Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV).

The war of Vietnam with the USA began in 1954 (but before it was a conflict in region, which dates back to 1940s). When Ho Chi Minh and his party Viet Minh (party was communistic) in Northern Vietnam, they continued the fight between the USA and Soviet Union – two superpowers, called earlier Cold War. The Vietnam-USA war was violent, we’re killed more than a more than 3 million people, including 58,000 of Americans, and more than a half civilians.*

As said historical website, only in 1973 President Nixon ordered to withdrawal US forces from Vietnam. But only in 1975 communistic forces were able to take Saigon under control.


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